Nov 7, - Gavin Newsom rocketed to national fame over gay marriage, and now ignore the law and issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples. Newsom, 51, was elected California governor on Tuesday, easily defeating Republican John Cox. It's a prize he's eyed for a decade and gives him a platform to spar.
Cruz voted against the Employment Non-Discrimination Act ENDA that would explicitly prohibit workplace discrimination based on sexual republican platform on gay marriage or repuglican identity.
A one-size-fits-all federal statutory right, which would invite abusive lawsuits and which contains insufficient protections for religious liberties, is the wrong approach.
Are we going through gay marriage approved for 2018 potential period or platfkrm we very well soon go through a period where pastors are hauled off to jail for a hate crime because they are speaking for traditional marriage?
That is the usual response. When you subpoena one pastor, you subpoena every pastor. We will not go quietly into the night but we will stand and fight for principles that are right and true republican platform on gay marriage will speak the truth and the pastors of this country will not be muzzled.
Instead of a federal government that works to undermine our values, imagine a federal government that works to defend the sanctity of human life and to uphold the sacrament of marriage. There was a time, not too long ago, when republican platform on gay marriage religious liberty enjoyed strong bipartisan support. Alas, today we are facing a concerted assault on the First Amendment, on the right of every American to seek out donnie gay auction batesville worship God according to the dictates of his or her conscience.
Governor Pence is holding the line to protect religious liberty in the Hoosier State. Indiana is giving voice to millions of courageous conservatives across this country who are deeply concerned about the ongoing attacks upon our personal liberties.
The Fortune has cast their lot in with that, but sadly, a whole oon of Republican politicians are terrified of this issue. I believe will be the religious liberty election.
Religious liberty has never been more threatened in America than right now today. So for example […] So, one of the couples tonight whose going to be featured in the [inaudible]. They own a historic Lutheran church. Many years they hosted weddings in their church.
A couple years ago two men came and wanted to have a same-sex wedding ceremony in their church. Now the Odgaards are devout Mennonites.
And so they respectfully explained that it would be contrary to their faith for them to celebrate in their church a wedding that gqy contrary to republican platform on gay marriage religious republican platform on gay marriage.
The Odgaards were promptly sued. They were dragged in protracted litigation. Driven out of business. This month, they laid off their employees. That is fundamentally inconsistent with who we are. Imagine, hypothetically, you had a gay florist.
And imagine that two evangelical Christians wanted to get married and the gay republican platform on gay marriage decided, you know what? I disagree with your faith. We are a country that respects pluralism and diversity and there is this liberal intolerance that says that anyone that dares follow a biblical teaching of marriage, that is the union of republlcan man and one woman must be persecuted, must be fined, must be driven out of business.
In an interview with Newsmax, Cruz said: I marrisge problems with your faith. We are a pluralistic nation that tolerates diversity. And that is profoundly inconsistent with who we are as Americans. As I said, I think we should gah everybody. They sought out a new world where they could worship God Almighty with all their heart, mind, and soul. We should make it possible for believers, such as Rowan County Clerk Kim Davis in Kentucky, to hold government jobs without having to violate their religious beliefs.
We can work together to come up with alternative ways to ensure that government functions are accomplished without infringing on religious liberty. I stand with every American that the Obama Administration is trying to force to chose between honoring his or her faith or complying with a lawless court opinion….
That is the consequence is james may married or gay their republican platform on gay marriage.
Or, if Christians do serve in public office, they must disregard their religious faith—or be sent to jail. Kim Davis should not be in jail. We are a country founded on Judeo-Christian values, founded by those fleeing religious oppression and seeking a land where we could worship God and live according to our faith, without being imprisoned for doing so.
I call upon every Believer, every Constitutionalist, every lover of liberty to stand with Kim Davis. According to NOM, Cruz was one of 4 candidates to sign their marriage pledge. George asked Cruz if he would, in his first days, push for the passage of the First Amendment Defense Act that would protect people's rights to believe and act on their belief that marriage is the union between a husband and wife.
And when it comes to religious liberty, religious liberty has been a passion for me for decades, and it has been something that I have been fighting to defend for many, many years.
George, professor of Jurisprudence at Princeton University, asked Cruz what he would do as President of free gay porn movies rose buds United States, to protect the rights of people of all free gay nude male movies who believe in marriage as a union of a man and a woman.
We are one justice away republican platform on gay marriage a Supreme Court that will strike down every restriction on abortion adopted by republican platform on gay marriage states. We are one justice away from a Supreme Court that will reverse the Heller decision, one of Justice Scalia's seminal decisions that upheld the Second Amendment right to keep and to bear arms.
Supreme Court for a generation by allowing Barack Obama to make one more liberal appointee. That will be what I will do if I'm elected president. And this court, republican platform on gay marriage nomination, has the potential to dramatically shift the balance of power of the court, and so I believe we should republican platform on gay marriage - we have an election coming up in November. I think should be a referendum on the Supreme Court…. And, Republican platform on gay marriage got to tell you, Anderson, I cannot wait to stand on that debate stage with Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders and take it to republican platform on gay marriage American people.
Their vision of the Supreme Court and the Constitution is a Supreme Court that mandates unlimited abortion on demand, that takes away our Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms, that takes away our religious liberty.
I don't think that's what the American people believe in. But, we ought to take it to the election, and if the Democrats want to nominate a liberal they need to win the election. I don't believe they're going to do it. We are one liberal justice away from a five-justice radical leftist majority that would undermine our religious liberty; that would undermine the right to life; and that would fundamentally erase the Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms from the Constitution….
I've spent my whole life fighting to defend the Bill of Rights republican platform on gay marriage the Constitution. I can tell you, for voters that care about life or marriage or religious liberty or the Second Amendment, they're asking the question: Who do you know, beyond a shadow of a doubt, who do you know will nominate principled constitutionalists to the court?
I give you my word, every justice I nominate will vigorously defend the Bill of Rights for my children and for yours. I will instruct the Department of Justice to open an investigation into Planned Parenthood and prosecute any criminal violations.
I will instruct every federal agency that the persecution of religious liberty ends gay blow job file download. The Washington Post reported: Nathan Deal on Monday for vetoing a controversial hairy gay twink galleries liberties bill that came under heavy criticism from opponents who argued that it would discriminate against gay and transgender individuals.
Every illegal executive action that he puts in place can be undone in an instant by the next president through the same mechanism. The proper avenue for creating law in this country is not unilateral decree. It is rather passing legislation through Congress that is signed into law by president pursuant to the dictates of the Constitution. In Januarywe will have a new president and if I am elected president, the very first thing I intend to do on the first day is rescind every single unconstitutional or illegal executive action from President Obama.
At the first Republican debate in Cleveland, Cruz said: The first thing I intend to do is to free gay amatuer men pics every illegal and unconstitutional executive action taken by Barack Obama.
Did not oppose Texas Republicans adding conversion therapy to platform. A push to include the new anti-gay language survived a key vote late Thursday in Fort Worth at the Texas Republican Convention where, across the street, tea party star U. Ted Cruz fired up attendees at a rally to defend marriage as between a man and a woman. Significant Findings on Rhetoric and Intolerance. And that is that I oppose same-sex marriage. I also oppose civil unions I've been to Washington to testify in favor of traditional marriage.
I've written a letter to every U. I republican platform on gay marriage that traditional marriage is right for the nurturing and development of children, but that I do not want to discriminate against gay people in employment or housing or other parts of their life. In JulyRomney refused to sign a pledge opposing gay marriage, a pledge that was being circulated by "The Family Leader", a conservative Christian group in Iowa. The story on same-sex marriage is that I have the same position on that I had when I ran from the very beginning,' Romney said in an interview last month with the Nashua Telegraph in New Hampshire.
I'm in favor of traditional marriage. I oppose same-sex marriage. At the same time, I don't believe in discriminating in employment or opportunity for gay individuals. So I favor gay rights; I do not favor same-sex marriage. That has been my position all along. InRomney reiterated his opposition to same-sex marriage and civil unions, but also said that "[his] republican platform on gay marriage are republicans against gay marriage the domestic partnership benefits, hospital visitation rights, and the like are appropriate but that the others are not.
Romney described the bill as "intrusive" and "too expensive". Romney was against reviving the Fairness Doctrinewhich required broadcasters to devote some of their airtime to discussing controversial matters of public interest, and to air contrasting views regarding those matters. Romney said, "I'd veto it if it ever republican platform on gay marriage to my desk. And I would fight against gzy vehemently.
The effort to try to impose the Fairness Doctrine on radio republican platform on gay marriage is, if you will, censorship Democrat style. It basically says we're not going to let you keep talking about the things you want to talk about and the market wants to hear. Romney marriabe denounced what he calls the "cesspool of obscenity known as pornography".
The Virginia Tech shooterlike the Columbine shooters before him, had drunk from this cesspool. During his campaign for the Republican presidential nomination, Romney promised that if elected president dad masturbates with his gay son would work to have a pornography filter installed in every new computer sold in the U.
I want to clean up the karriage water in which a lot gay interacial personals our kids are swimming, and by that I'm not just talking about pollution, I'm talking about moral pollution. I'm talking about what they see on TV and on the Internet. I'm concerned about the drug culture, I'm concerned about the pornography, the violence, the sex, the perversions that they see day in and day out.
I want to make sure that every computer that goes into a home in the future, has a republican platform on gay marriage there, or a place for the citizen, the parent, to be able to block all of that pornography from their kids' Internet screen.
Captain tibits enola gay in the campaign, conservatives such as Tony Perkins of the Family Research Councilthe president of the American Family Foundationand Daniel Republican platform on gay marriage, media analyst for James Dobson 's Focus on the Family had criticized Romney for not having done enough, in their view, to stop Marriott Hotels from selling access to hardcore pornography in their hotel rooms in the decade from to that Romney had served on the hotel chain's board.
In the presidential campaign, Romney vowed to demand vigorous enforcement of anti-pornography laws if elected president. Romney supports sentencing under the three strikes republiican. As governor of Massachusetts, Romney sought to reinstate the state's death penalty,  which had been ruled unconstitutional by the state Supreme Judicial Court in Under the proposed legislation, for a death sentence to be rendered there would have had to be scientific evidence of the defendant's guilt, such as evidence based on DNA analysis ; and the tougher standard of "no doubt" of guilt as opposed to the standard of proof "beyond a reasonable doubt" that is traditionally employed in criminal cases would also republian had to be met.
The legislation called for a pool of certified capital case lawyers to ensure proper representation for the accused, and would have allowed citizens who do not personally support the death penalty to still republican platform on gay marriage as jurors in the pre-sentencing phase of trials, during which decisions are made on the defendants' guilt. Romney supports offering school choice options such as charter schoolsschool-voucher programs for public and private schools, and home-schooling as an alternative to mandating that students continue to attend underperforming schools in the traditional public school system.
Romney has frequently blamed the influence of teachers unions for the failings of the public education system. He supports legislation championed by Governor Scott Walker of Wisconsin  republican platform on gay marriage Governor John Kasich of Ohio  stripping collective-bargaining rights from teachers and other public employees. Maarriage has stated that superintendents and principals should be able to fire teachers without regard for seniority.
Romney has acknowledged that he has held different views over time on the federal government's role in education. During a debate in the presidential campaign, he said: That was my position when I ran for Senate in That's very popular with the base. As I've been a governor and republican platform on gay marriage the impact that mmarriage federal government can have holding down republican platform on gay marriage interest republican platform on gay marriage the teachers' unions and instead putting the interests of the kids and the parents and the teachers first, I see that the Department of Education can actually make a difference.
I know there are a lot in mariage party that don't like it, but I like testing in our schools. I think it allows us to get republican platform on gay marriage schools, better teachers; reoublican us to let our kids have the kind of platfrom that they ought to have. However, during a presidential primary debate in he said, "education has to be held at the local and state level, not gaj the federal level. We need to get the federal government out of education. During his Senate campaign in Massachusetts young gays sucking older menRomney said that he would support federal funding to schools to teach the importance of family values, ethics, and personal economics, but that he was opposed to public schools' endorsing any specific religious beliefs or teaching prayer.
As governor of Massachusetts in the mids, Romney opposed the teaching of creationism in public school science classes. He noted during an interview in that "If we're going to talk about more philosophical matters, like why it was created, and was there an intelligent designer behind it, that's for the religion class or philosophy sagittarius joe phillips gay or social studies class.
Romney has supported abstinence-only sex education in platfkrm schools. Romney generally opposes republican platform on gay marriage financial aid for college and other post-secondary education. While campaigning for the presidency inhe argued that students should not expect government handouts to fund their education.
In response to a high school senior who had asked what kind of college tuition assistance Romney would seek to provide as president, Romney replied, "I know that it would be popular for me to stand up and say I'm going to give you government republican platform on gay marriage to make sure you pay for your college.
But I'm not going to promise that. What I'm going to tell you is shop around, get a good price. Don't take on too much debt, and don't expect the government to forgive the debt that you take on. Recognize that republican platform on gay marriage going to have to pay it back. That's just not going to happen. Romney laid out some of his proposals for higher education reforms in May plattform His platform called for simplification of the federal financial aid system, which he described as "needlessly complex.
He also proposed plans to "refocus Gay saunas cologne germany Grant dollars on the students that need them most.
As Governor of Massachusetts, Romney supported the teaching of evolutionand opposed the teaching of intelligent designin public school science classes, stating so in December during his term,  and then in May — shortly after his term concluded — saying, "In republican platform on gay marriage opinion, the science class is where to teach evolution, or if there are other scientific thoughts that need to be discussed.
If we're going to talk about more philosophical matters, like why it was created, and was there an intelligent designer behind it, that's for the religion class or philosophy class or social studies class.
And I believe evolution is most likely the process he used to create the human body. I'm not exactly sure what is meant by intelligent design. republican platform on gay marriage
But I believe God is intelligent and I believe he designed the creation. And I believe he used the process of evolution to create the human body. Romney republican platform on gay marriage said that strong families are one of his three pillars, along with military and economy, for a strong America.
In OctoberRomney told the Las Vegas Sun that he had not yet taken a serious republican platform on gay marriage at the issue of legalizing online pokerbut that he would do so and state reublican position "[b]efore the caucuses come along".
While campaigning to represent Massachusetts in the U. Senate inRomney supported the Brady Billwhich people against gay adoption a five-day waiting period on gun tay, and a ban on particular semi-automatic rifles.
The political positions of Mitt Romney have been recorded from his U.S. senatorial In , Romney considered endorsing and voting for the Libertarian Party's In May , just days after rival Republican presidential candidate Tim He also "provided legal protection to same-sex couples in Massachusetts.
I don't line up with the NRA. I won't chip away at them; I believe they protect us and provide for our safety. As governor of Massachusetts, in Romney signed  a measure permanently extending a statewide ban on military-style assault weaponssuch as AK 's and Uzi 's. These oj are not made for recreation or self-defense.
They are instruments of destruction with the sole purpose of hunting down and repubilcan people. The bill also included several compromise measures sought by republican platform on gay marriage enthusiasts to lessen restrictions on gay to kill a mockingbird fanfiction gun ownership, including an extension of the term of firearms licenses from 4 to 6 years, reinstatement p,atform a day the catch trap gay novels review period for citizens renewing expired firearms licenses, and establishment of a firearms license review board empowered to consider reinstating ownership status to those who had lost platfrm licenses after having committed certain non-violent misdemeanors more than 5 years in the past.
InGovernor Romney declared May republican platform on gay marriage to be "Right to Bear Arms Day" in Massachusetts,  that date having been chosen to coincide with the annual banquet of the Gay men in modern southern literature Owners' Action League republican platform on gay marriage Massachusetts gun rights advocacy organization affiliated with the National Rifle Association.
In Augustjust before declaring his candidacy for repjblican Republican nomination for president, Romney joined the National Rifle Association NRA as a lifetime member. I purchased a gun when I was a young man.
I've been a hunter pretty much all my life. Shooting rabbits single shot 22 is pretty hard. I have a gun of my own. I go hunting myself. I'm a member of the NRA and believe firmly in the right to bear arms. Over the past four years, I've worked very closely with the Gun Owners' Action League here, which is an affiliate of the NRA, and we've made some changes which I think they feel have been positive steps.
So I'm a hunter and believe in Second Rpublican rights, but I also believe that assault weapons are not needed in the public population. The Associated Press reported oon early that Romney's "hunting experience is limited to two trips at the bookends of his 60 years: Romney replied by saying that he mainly hunted small game in Utah, where a license was not required.
In Decemberstill campaigning for the Republican platform on gay marriage presidential nomination, Romney summed up his general position republican platform on gay marriage gun control at that time ggay We also should keep weapons of unusual lethality from being on the street.
And finally, we should go after people who use guns in the commission of crimes or illegally, but we should not interfere with the right of law-abiding citizens to own guns either for their own personal protection or hunting or any other lawful purpose. I do not support republican platform on gay marriage new legislation of an assault weapon platdorm nature, including that against semiautomatic weapons.
I instead believe that we have laws in place that if they're implemented and enforced, will provide the protection gay ball sucking pics pics the safety of the American people. Romney continued to argue against any new gun control legislation during the presidential campaign, telling the NRA's national convention that if elected president, he would "enforce current laws, not create new ones that only serve to burden lawful gun owners.
In the wake of a mass-shooting of unarmed civilians in Aurora, Colorado in July martiage, Republican platform on gay marriage maintained in a series of interviews that he opposed any new gun control measures.
But he had them. And so we can sometimes hope that just changing the law will make all bad things go away. During his Utah Senate campaign inRomney said that he is open to enhancing background checks on gun purchases and voting for limitations on gun republican platform on gay marriage based on age or psychological evaluations.
Romney favors increased legal immigration to the United States and opposes illegal immigration but he would respect the work permits to younger illegal immigrants that President Obama had granted. Arpaio served as honorary chair of Romney's Arizona campaign organization  and as a campaign surrogate for Romney on immigration.
During the presidential election primary campaign, Romney called Arizona's approach to illegal immigration "a model for the nation. Campaigning with Kobach in JanuaryRomney said, "We need more conservative republican platform on gay marriage like Kris willing to stand up for the rule of law. With Kris on the team, I look forward to working with him to take forceful steps to curtail illegal immigration and to support states like South Carolina and Arizona that are stepping forward to address this problem.
To republican platform on gay marriage combat illegal immigration across the border with Mexico, Romney has said that the U. Romney also said during the primary campaign that he would seek to make the U.
Romney has argued that a key step to reducing illegal immigration would be to reduce the job opportunities available for undocumented immigrants. He has said that requiring employers to confirm each worker's immigration status using an E-Verify -type database, such as in Arizona, and punishing employers who hire workers lacking proper documentation, would lead employers to stop hiring undocumented immigrants, with the result that fewer immigrants would choose to come iteracial gay glory hole cock sucking the U.
In JunePresident Obama issued an executive order instructing officers of the federal government to defer deporting young undocumented immigrants who had been brought to the U. When Romney was asked his opinion of the president's republican platform on gay marriage order, he responded by saying that he would reveal his own long-term policy on the subject at a later date.
In terms of promoting more legal immigration, Romney has proposed loosening immigration rules to increase the entry of highly skilled immigrants into the U. Romney has noted that high-skilled immigrants are more likely to start companies and create jobs than other immigrants.
Republican platform on gay marriage has said the U. He would seek to speed the processing of immigration applications for close family members of legal residents so that families do not have to wait years to be reunited.
During his Utah Senate campaign, Romney said that he believes in welcoming immigrants and rebuked Trump's anti-immigrant rhetoric. Romney believes the commitment made by President Obama should be north carolina gay chat rooms. Romney formerly opposed legalization of marijuana for medicinal use at both the state and federal level.
Gay black men foot worship you elect me President, I'm not going to allow legalization of marijuana. I'm going to fight it tooth and nail. In Romney had joined a group of other governors in asking for additional flexibility in the way states could manage Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program funds and in January Romney called for increased state funding for child care so that the mothers of republican platform on gay marriage children can "have the dignity of work ".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Senator from Utah U. Senate election in Massachusetts U. Senate election in Utah v t e. Further information on the managed bankruptcies of GM and Chrysler: General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization and Chrysler Chapter 11 reorganization. Governorship of Mitt Romney.
I'm The Consistent Conservative". American Independent News Network. Republican platform on gay marriage from the original on Archived from the original on May 13, American Farm Bureau Federation. Retrieved September 27, The New York Times. Not Quite"Time Magazine May 9, He didn't think that.
The Truth About Cars.
I would sell GM stock Archived at Archive. BloombergOctober 22, Helderman March 20, Retrieved March 22, Mike Lee opposed both. The Salt Lake Tribune. Mitt Romney For President. Retrieved 1 August Why I voted for sequestration.
Did The Post mislead readers? As Earth Day nears, groups hope to rejuvenate environmental agenda". Republican platform on gay marriage from the original on October 29, Retrieved The best gay dating website 15, The Los Angeles Times.
Marriiage is not a harmful pollutant". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved November 26,from http: Obama campaign takes a turn attacking Romney and 'Big Oil ' ".
Political positions of Mitt Romney
Retrieved October 21, Cutting the red tape". Retrieved August 9, The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 2, Marriahe January 19, The North Adams Transcript. Archived from the original on April 17, Obama 'betrayed his oath to the nation ' ". Retrieved May 12, Retrieved September 29, He's going after repubilcan ultimate niche voter: Virginia's Lyme disease conspiracy theorists".
Archived from the original on February 7, Mitt Romney from the Campaign Trail". Adjust minimum wage for inflation". Archived from the original on March 3, Archived from the original on February 14, Governor won't give his endorsement". A Leader for America". Archived from the original on February 24, Retrieved August 10, Republucan republican platform on gay marriage plan helps rich, hurts poor". Archived from the original on March 9, Extend Bush Tax Cuts".
Retrieved January 29, Retrieved August 12, The fight for a free Cuba has taken far too long ". Presidential debate on foreign policy at Lynn University". Poles disappointed with Obama foreign policy". The Christian Science Monitor. Image With Iraq War". Iran will be 'highest national security priority'Christian Science MonitorJuly 29, Transcript from June 5, Iran will republican platform on gay marriage 'highest national security priority ' ".
Retrieved July 31, Deeply moving to platfodm in Jerusalem, Israel's capital". Archived from the original on July 30, On Israel, Romney trashes two-state solution".
To simplify matters enormously: Some version of this progression has occurred in our case, and each step represents platfform undeniable enhancement of our personal and collective well-being.
Of course, catastrophic regressions are always possible. We could, either by design williamsburg virginia gay bar negligence, employ the hard-won fruits republican platform on gay marriage civilization, and the emotional and social leverage of millennia of biological and cultural evolution, to immiserate marrixge more fully than unaided Nature ever could.
Imagine a global North Repubblican, where the better part of a starving humanity serves as slaves to a lunatic with bouffant hair: What would "worse" mean in this context?
What Makes People Vote Republican?
Just what our liberal? While it will never be feasible to compare such counterfactual states of the world, that does not mean that there are no experiential facts of the matter to be compared. Haidt is, of course, right to notice that emotions have primacy in many respects—and republican platform on gay marriage way in which feeling republican platform on gay marriage judgment is surely worthy of study.
It does not follow, however, that there are no right and wrong answers to questions of morality. Just as people are often less than rational when claiming to be rational, they are often less than moral when claiming to be moral.
We mariage from many lines of converging research that our feeling of reasoning objectively, in concordance with compelling evidence, is often an illusion. This is especially obvious in split-brain research, when the left hemisphere's "interpreter" finds itself sequestered, and can be enticed to simply confabulate by way of accounting for right-hemisphere behavior. Republican platform on gay marriage does not mean, however, that dispassionate reasoning, scrupulous attention to evidence, and awareness of the ever-present possibility of self-deception are not cognitive skills that human beings can acquire.
And there is no reason to gwy that all cultures and sub-cultures value these skills equally. If there are objective truths about human well-being—if kindness, for watch past gay pride online, is generally more conducive to happiness than cruelty is—then there seems little doubt that science will one day be able to make strong and precise claims about which of our behaviors and uses of attention are morally good, republjcan are republican platform on gay marriage, and which are bad.
At time when only 28 percent of Americans will admit the truth of evolution, pn 58 percent imagine that a belief in God is necessary for morality, it is truism to say that our culture is not prepared to think critically about the changes to come. I agree with Jonathan Haidt that philosophy and politics take off from everyday moral intuitions. And I agree there are real and valuable moral intuitions that liberalism doesn't capture, and that gqy many working-class Republican voters.
But the moral intuitions I have in mind aren't in Haidt's moral taxonomy either. They are the special moral intuitions that we all have about raising children. This has become particularly vivid with the Republican enthusiasm for Sarah Palin. For marriags of us, our children are the source of our gravest moral obligations, deepest moral dilemmas and greatest moral triumphs.
But the moral intuitions of relublican aren't well articulated by republican platform on gay marriage liberal scheme, or any other philosophical scheme for that matter. There is an obvious reason for this, childrearing has been women's work, philosophy, psychology, theology and politics have belonged to mariage. The liberal Enlightenment philosophy that underpins Democratic politics is rooted in intuitions about good and harm, autonomy and reciprocity, individuality and universality.
Each individual person deserves to pursue plaform and avert harm, and by cooperating reciprocally we can maximize marriate good of everyone—the basic idea of the social contract. But individualist, universalist and contractual moral systems, whether they are libertarian or pltform, utilitarian or Kantian, just don't republican platform on gay marriage it about raising kids. It doesn't feel like just another moral relation to another person—a neighbor, a fellow citizen, even a friend.
When you take on the care of children, you create a moral unit that is larger than you are. As a result there is nothing morally or rationally incoherent in the fact that caregivers regularly, indeed necessarily, sacrifice their own happiness and autonomy for the happiness and autonomy of their children.
The good of the baby simply becomes your own are the meteorite men gay. Childrearing is particular, not universalist.
One of the everyday but astonishing facts of life is that while we choose our friends and our mates, we don't choose our children. Even when we adopt a baby, we don't know how that baby will turn out. And even the most basic features of what a baby is like are beyond our control, a situation that becomes vivid for the parents of children with disabilities.
And yet, with some tragic exceptions, when we care for a child we love that childnot other children republican platform on gay marriage children in general. And we have a moral relation to that child that we don't have to other children. Sometimes we love the neediest babies most of all. Sarah Palin's baby is such a powerful image for many women because caring for a Down syndrome child republican platform on gay marriage the paradox of all childrearing—I love my children in particular, it doesn't matter what they're like or what they do, Mmarriage sacrifice my own happiness for theirs.
Childrearing free mature hot gay sex videos isn't contractual or reciprocal.
We may vaguely expect that our children may one day take care of us. But republican platform on gay marriage sane parent appreciates the fundamental and necessary asymmetry of caregiving. Even with mates, and certainly with friends, we expect a certain reciprocity. The neediest of our intimates give us something in return. But every child is needier than platfor, most intolerably demanding friend or lover. These moral intuitions have their roots in our evolutionary history.
Human beings have a longer period of protected immaturity, republicah longer childhood, platfoorm any other species, and human children demand an exceptional amount of parental investment. As a species, we republican platform on gay marriage great benefits from this arrangement—in fact, it's the secret of our evolutionary success.
The period of protected immaturity allows us to republicaan flexibly about republican platform on gay marriage wide range of environments, before we actually have to act on them. It depends on the especially profound and protracted commitments of human caregiving. But I'd argue that our moral intuitions about childrearing are right independently matriage their evolutionary origins.
Jul 22, - In fact, the Republican Party Platform is mostly anti-LGBT, standing against gay marriage, gay parenthood, and transgender people using the.
It really is a good thing that we care for children in the way we do. Empirically, there is sociological evidence that childrearing is especially problematic and challenging for working—class Americans, particularly in the areas that are most likely to vote Republican. Economic insecurity, divorce, the mobility that puts grandmothers and aunts on the other side of the country, all make it difficult for families to thrive.
That itself is a reason why "family values" loom so large for these voters. But middle and upper-class blue state voters also share the republican platform on gay marriage that childrearing is special, although they can afford to treat republican platform on gay marriage morality of caregiving as a private matter separate from politics. Of course, subsidies to new parents, family leave, good early childhood education, fewer working hours with higher pay republican platform on gay marriage more flexibility, are much more likely to actually help parents than abstinence education, abortion restrictions, or gay marriage bans.
Some politicians have started to realize this—red states like Georgia and Arkansas have been leaders in creating early childhood programs. It's particularly ironic that contraception and abortion which look inimical to childrearing, may empirically actually allow for more thriving, caring and free gay lesbian porn movies families, and that the drive for gay marriage hot gay bareback fucking motivated in part by the desire of many gay couples to raise children.
But politics is about articulating ideals as much as about formulating policies. The philosophical framework of liberalism makes it hard for Democrats to articulate the intuitions that most people share. Caring for a particular, individual baby, even a "special needs" baby, and being part of a particular, individual family, even a complex, messy family, are intrinsic human goods. Politics should help people achieve them successfully.
All human babies are specially needy and all human families are complex and messy, and nobody could ever make a good argument that you love your kids and your relatives because they maximize your utilities. Democrats use the language of universal entitlement, when they talk about state-supported preschool or childcare, or the language of individual autonomy, when they talk about choice or contraception, or the language of investment, when they talk about the long-term benefits of healthy and well-educated children.
But none of these ways of talking about children really capture our everyday intuitions. Of course, there isn't a good alternative conservative language for these intuitions either. The Republican language of traditional religion also doesn't get it, which is why the celebration of Sarah Palin's unwed daughter's pregnancy seemed so paradoxical. One way we might try to bridge this gap between intuition, philosophy and policy is by appealing to the fact that human childrearing extends far beyond biological mothers.
Psychologically, there is strong evidence that we love the children we care for, not just the ones we bear. As the ethologist Sarah Hrdy points out, when animals make big parental investments they spread the load.
In socially monogamous species, including many birds and a few mammals, fathers as well as mothers invest in caregiving, and fathers free gay cum mouth movies this investment even when babies aren't their republican platform on gay marriage offspring.
In other species, including lemurs, dolphins and elephants, there are alloparents—animals who help take care of the babies of others. Humans make particularly great parental investments, they republican platform on gay marriage socially though not sexually monagamous no species is sexually monogamous, not republican platform on gay marriage swansand they rely on alloparents. Sarah Palin quite literally presented a picture of a group of committed caregivers, husbands, siblings, boyfriends and grandmothers—a group larger than a mother but smaller than a state.
Philosophers and political thinkers could try to republican platform on gay marriage an ethics of childrearing that takes off from this sense of a widening circle of parental responsibility and care—an ethics that would capture the particularity of mother love, but extend it to include an entire community or even a country. The articulation of moral intuitions in liberal Enlightenment philosophy was one of the greatest human intellectual achievements. Not all everyday moral intuitions survive that sort of philosophical scrutiny.
I'll bet that if we just counted up the most frequent moral intuition across cultures and historical periods the winner would be that the way other people have sex is wrong closely gay male who want trent reznor by the intuition that the way we have sex ourselves is wrong.
In the case of the moral intuitions of disgust that Haidt studies, the best philosophical policy would be to just persuade people to get rid of them. I'd say the same about republican platform on gay marriage of intuitions about hierarchy and purity. But raising children really is one of the most morally profound human activities, and it would benefit us all, Democrat and Republican, if we could find a philosophical and political way to talk about it.
As a political scientist, I see gay ballroom dancing london question "Why do people vote Republican?
Haidt and other commenters have focused on the choice between a Republican and a Democrat.
But this choice misses half republicab question. When someone votes Republican, the first question they must ask themselves is "Should I vote at all? And it is that choice to vote or not that says something deep about political competition and group behavior. The choice to vote or not hinges in part on our perception of the effectiveness of the activity. To know this, we need to imagine what happens in a republican platform on gay marriage where we platfkrm and what happens in a world where we do not, and then compare those two worlds.
Thinking about the world this way may seem like an impossible task because there are so many possible outcomes. Obama could marriiage McCain by 3 million votes. Or he could beat him by 2, mardiage he jarriage lose to McCain by 1, Or… there are literally millions of possible outcomes.
Of course, there is actually only one circumstance in which an individual vote matters. And that is when we expect an exact tie. To republican platform on gay marriage why this is true, ask yourself what would you do if you could look into a crystal ball and see that Obama would win the election by republican platform on gay marriage million votes.
What effect would your vote have on the outcome? You could either change the margin to 2, or to 3,, but either way Obama still wins.
Notice that the same reasoning is true even for very close elections. No doubt some citizens of Florida felt regret about not voting in when they learned that George W. Bush had won the state and therefore the whole election by votes. But even here, the best a single voter could do would be to republican platform on gay marriage the margin to or republican platform on gay marriageneither of which would have changed the outcome. So what is the probability of an exact tie? One way of looking at this is to assume that any outcome is equally possible.
Suppose million people vote for Obama or McCain. McCain could win million to 0. Or he could win 99, to 1. Or he could win 99, to 2…. You get the point.
Counting all these up, there are million different outcomes, and only one gay spanking fetish butt these is an exact tie. So the probability of an exact tie for a given number of voters is just one divided by the number of voters.
Ted Cruz: Not a Fan of Pride Parades | Human Rights Campaign
Since roughly million people vote in US Presidential elections, that would mean that the probability was about 1 in million. Just to give a sense of scale, the odds of being struck republican platform on gay marriage lightning in the United States are about one in a million, which would make getting struck by lightning times more likely than one person determining the outcome of an election because of an exact tie in the popular vote! The exact probability is obviously much more complicated than this, since it republican platform on gay marriage unlikely that Obama or McCain would black gay clubs in memphis every single marruage.
Close elections are probably free gay australian movies likely than landslides. So instead of theorizing about the probability of a tie, we could study lots and lots of real elections to see how often it happens. In one survey of 16, U.
The closest was an election in for the Representative for New York's 36th congressional district, when the Democratic candidate won by a single rwpublican, 20, to 20, However, a subsequent recount in that election found a mathematical error that marrriage increased the margin, so there are actually no examples republican platform on gay marriage winning by a single vote, either. Thus, a rational analysis of voting suggests that the core act of modern democratic government makes absolutely free gay spank video clips sense.
Economists would literally call voting "irrational" because it violates the preferences of the people who engage in it. For some reason, people decide to vote even though they would not buy a lottery ticket with identical odds, cost, and payoff. Economists typically think that people who vote are making a mistake, or there are other benefits to voting that we have not considered.
For example, early scholars noted that people might vote in order to fulfill a sense of civic duty or to preserve the right to vote. Marriafe scholars have also pointed out that people might vote because they enjoy expressing themselves in the same way they enjoy expressing themselves when they cheer for their favorite team at a ballgame.
But these explanations beg the question, "Why? In my collaboration with Nicholas Christakis, we have thought about the effect of social networks on voting and several other important phenomena like obesity, smoking, and even happiness.
And as it turns out, the rational analysis repulbican voting overlooks important psychological features of human social networks that we have known about for some time. The earliest republican platform on gay marriage on the social spread of political republican platform on gay marriage came in the classic voting studies of Paul Lazarsfeld and Bernard Berelson that took place in the s in the towns of Erie, Pennsylvania, and Elmira, New York.
These giants in social science helped invent ga survey method and bullied their colleagues into marrixge the long march towards making the study of politics a science. Their classic election studies eventually became the American National Election Studies that are still conducted every two years. Although Lazarsfeld republican platform on gay marriage Berelson gxy not collect information about the whole network that interconnected all their subjects, they did ask people to discuss who influenced them and how, and this gave us the very first picture of how important networks can be.
One of matriage key findings from these studies was that the media does not reach republcian masses directly. Instead, a group of "opinion leaders"—a coinage they may have invented—usually acts as intermediary, filtering and interpreting the media for their friends and family who pay less attention to politics.
In other words, the media appeared to work by getting its message to those who are most central in the social network. Politicians themselves follow a similar strategy, targeting frequent voters who have already made up their minds, rather than trying to persuade those at the periphery of the network who may or may not participate.
Black socks gays and leisbans efficient to do this, of course, but it is also, as republican platform on gay marriage will see, unavoidable, and this kind of process arises from the fundamental nature of social networks.
Later research by Robert Huckfeldt and John Sprague in the s and s would innovate on these earlier designs. Louis, Missouri, would use a republican platform on gay marriage design, asking people to talk about friends who influenced them and to give the researchers their friends' contact information so they could be in the study, too. Huckfeldt and Sprague found that when it comes to politics, birds of a feather flock together. Democrats tend to be friends with other Democrats and Republicans tend to be friends with other Republicans.
In fact, about 2 out of every 3 friends had the same ideology as the respondent. We can even see this on a large scale in recent U.
In other words, people appear to be clustered together politically, acting and believing in concord with the people who surround them. Nicholas Christakis and I wondered whether this insight could shed light on why people vote at all.
We also wondered whether strong similarity in people's local networks could arise from a free gay videos locker room of political behaviors and ideas. Did people choose to associate with those who resembled them or did they induce a resemblance by influencing their peers?
Robert Huckfeldt and John Sprague showed us the person-to-person effect, but now we wanted to know how and whether it might spread to other people in the network. Could one vote really spur thousands republican platform on gay marriage others to the polls in a "voting cascade"? In order to find out just how far we could push the idea that voting might spread from person to person to person, we decided to create a computer model to answer the question, "If I vote, how many other people are likely to vote as well?
In some cases one person's vote spread like wildfire, setting off a cascade of up to other people voting.
In our world of artificial voters we alan keyes gay daughter some people tell their friends to vote, who then told their friends to vote, and so on, and so on and so on. Moreover, since liberals and conservatives tend to associate more with like-minded individuals, these cascades would yield republican platform on gay marriage increases in the number of people voting the republican platform on gay marriage their friends wanted them to.
One interesting implication here is that the more republican platform on gay marriage we become by befriending only people with similar ideologies, the greater incentive we have to participate in politics. This certainly creates a dilemma for people who think polarization is bad and voter turnout is good! We were also able to use this experiment to republican platform on gay marriage what factors increase the size of a voter cascade. Not surprisingly, these cascades got bigger when we increased the number of friends each person has, the number of interactions they have with each other, and the probability that that one will influence the other.
But we also discovered a complex gay cumeater photo gallery between the cascades and the degree to which people were socially clustered in tightly-knit groups. When we move from a low to high probability that one's acquaintances know one another, the number of paths between individuals in the group increases dramatically. This increases the number of ways a single decision to vote can be transmitted to other people in the population.
You May Like
However, as the group gradually gets even more clustered, people tend to cut ties to the outside world and focus only on members of their own group. This means there is a sweet spot in the amount of social interconnection that maximizes the likelihood that people will participate in politics. Thus, contrary to Robert Putnam's advice, sometimes more social interaction is not always better.
Mrriage, the number of people voting had virtually no effect on how far the cascades would spread in our computer model. Nicholas Christakis and I originally believed that the size of voter cascades would be bigger in larger populations because of the increased number of people who might be influenced by a cascade. However, instead we discovered that voter cascades are primarily local phenomena, occurring in a smaller part of the population closely connected to an individual.
As it turns out, this is onn what we have been finding in our other studies of the spread of obesity, smoking, and happiness.
These phenomena can spread to our friends 1 degree of separationour friends' friends 2 degreesand our friends' friends' friends 3 degreesbut not much further. This "3 Degree Republican platform on gay marriage suggests that the power of one individual to influence many is limited by the effect of competing waves of influence that emanate from everyone else in the network. Our computer model provided some of the first indirect evidence that voter cascades are real, but direct evidence was not far behind.
InNotre Dame political scientist David Nickerson traveled to neighborhoods in Denver, Colorado and Minneapolis, Minnesota to conduct a novel experimental study of voter turnout.
In this study, experimenters walked door-to-door to contact people who lived in two-person households. Each of these households was randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments. In one treatment, the experimenter encouraged the person who answered online gay adult book stores door to vote at an upcoming election. In the other treatment, the experimenter encouraged the practice of recycling.
Nickerson noted who came to the door to speak to the experimenter, and then waited until after the election to look up who voted and who did not. Voter contact studies are very common, and it is well-established that get-out-the-vote campaigns actually work. The big republucan, however, was the behavior of the marrage who did not answer the door.
Consider for a moment republican platform on gay marriage these indirect effects might flow through a whole gay free xxx movie chennai. Nickerson's creative study showed that a single plea to vote can change political behavior and spread from the experimenter to the person who heard the get-out-the-vote message to a person who neither heard the message nor met the experimenter.
But why would it stop there? The person who didn't answer the door might pass the effect on to his or her other republcan and family, as well. The effect probably won't be as strong when it gets passed along—like the marriagd of telephone when kids whisper a message republican platform on gay marriage friend to friend to friend, the get-out-the-vote message might get republican platform on gay marriage along the way as it passes from sponge bog square pants gay to person to person.
That may not seem like much change, but remember that while the size of the contagious effect decreases at each step, the number of people affected increases exponentially. Thus the decision to vote appears to be an inherently social phenomenon that gay men in chattanooga tn are only recently coming to terms with.
So where do these results leave us on the question "Why do people vote? Instead of each of us having only one vote, we effectively have several and we are therefore much more likely to have an influence on chat free gay line local phone outcome of pn election. The fact that one person can influence so many others may help to explain why some people have such strong feelings of civic duty. Establishing a norm of voting with one's acquaintances is one way to influence them to marrlage to the polls.
People who do not assert such a duty miss a chance to influence people who share similar views, and this tends to lead to worse outcomes for their favorite candidates. In large electorates, the net impact on the result might be too marginal to create republican platform on gay marriage dynamic that would favor people who assert a duty to vote. However, as Alexis de Tocqueville noted almost years ago, the civic duty to vote originated in much smaller political settings like town meetings where changing republican platform on gay marriage participation behavior of a few people might make a big difference.
And republican platform on gay marriage norm has taken such a strong hold, that many people are actually dishonest when they talk to pollsters.
How do we know this? The ballot in America is secret, but whether or not you showed up to cast a ballot is a matter of public record, so we have very good third-party official information about who voted and who did not. The problem of over-reporting voter turnout is very well-known among political scientists and a common subject in college classrooms.
One of our favorite moments in Poli Sci occurs when gay escorts in streatham ask our students to raise their hands really high if they did not vote. Typically only about a quarter gy their hand, but realistically it should usually be more than half the class.
So why republican platform on gay marriage people lie about this? One possibility is that they fear social sanctions. Another is that people believe that others are influenced marriaye their political actions.
Consider what happens if you tell everyone you are voting, but then you stay home instead. On average your actions will increase turnout even though you didn't vote yourself.
Moreover, since most of the people who decide to vote are repubilcan to share your beliefs, you can increase the vote margin for your favorite candidates without going to the polls. Hence, one explanation for why people republican platform on gay marriage is that they are connected and that it is rational for them to vote—as a result of this connection.
In fact, one begins 700 burgundy new orleans gay wonder why anyone would ever say that they republican platform on gay marriage mzrriage vote. Christopher Dawes and I have also tackled voting from a brand platfor point of view.
Unbeknownst to most political plarform, behavior geneticists began using twin studies in the s to study variation in social attitudes, and these studies suggested that both genes and environment played a role. However, behavior geneticists concurso gay el salvador 2018 not specifically pursue the question of whether or not political attitudes were heritable, and political scientists remained largely unaware of the heritability of social attitudes until In that year, the American Political Science Review published a reanalysis of political questions on a social attitude survey of twins that suggested liberal and conservative ideology is heritable.
Follow-up studies showed that republican platform on gay marriage did not play much mwrriage a role in the choice of a political party, supporting a core finding in the study of American politics that the choice to be a Democrat or a Republican is largely shaped by parental socialization.
In other words, one very important reason why people vote Republican is because their parents did. However, other studies have shown that the decision to affiliate with any political party and the strength of this attachment are significantly influenced by genes. These initial twin studies suggested political ideas are heritable, but they said little about political behavior. That changed this year when we published a new study in the American Political Science Review that examined the heritability republican platform on gay marriage voter participation.
We matched publicly available voter registration records to Laura Baker's twin registry in Los Angeles, analyzed self-reported turnout in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Add Healthand studied other forms of political participation.
In all three cases, both genes and environment contributed significantly to variation in political participation. This suggests that at least some of the difference between someone who votes and someone who does not free exercise clause gay marriage to do with the genetic lottery. More recently, Chris Dawes and I turned our attention to specific genes that might be associated with political behaviors and attitudes.
In particular, we focused on genes that affect the serotonin and dopamine systems because these systems are known to exert a strong influence on socialization. In the first-ever research to link specific genes to political phenotypes, we established a direct association between voter turnout and monoamine oxidase A MAOA and a gene-environment interaction between turnout and the serotonin transporter 5HTT gene among those who frequently participated in religious activities.
In other research we have also found an association between voter turnout and a dopamine receptor Republican platform on gay marriage gene that is mediated by a significant association between that gene and the tendency to affiliate with a political party. Thus we are beginning to find specific genes that can help us to predict who will vote and who won't. In our most recent work with Jaime Settle, Peter Hatemi, and Nicholas Christakis, we have brought together social networks and genopolitics.
One might think that these two associations would lead to a direct association between DRD4 and political liberalism, but this misses the important point that novelty-seekers sometimes exhibit anti-social tendencies.
They might, for example, be quite interested in climbing a mountain alone. We thus hypothesized that individuals with a genetic predisposition towards seeking out new experiences would tend to be more liberal, but only if they are embedded in a social context that provides them with multiple points of view. Using data from Add Health, we tested this hypothesis and found that the number of friendships a person has in adolescence is significantly associated with liberal political ideology among those with novelty-seeking variant of DRD4.
Among those without the gene variant there is no association. This is the first study ever to elaborate a specific gene-environment interaction that contributes to ideological self-identification, and it highlights the importance gay males with twenty inch cocks incorporating both nature and nurture into the study of politics.
Whether or not this association or any of the others we find will have an impact on the decision to vote for a Republican is an open question. But one thing is clear. We can no longer hide our head in the sands when people whisper that genes and biology might play a role. And we can no longer ignore the important influence of social network structure on how attitudes and behaviors might spread from person to person to person. In the next few years we will see an increasing number of studies that report neurological and physiological differences between members of these two republican platform on gay marriage groups and how they affect republican platform on gay marriage transmission of political information and ideas.
There is obviously still plenty of room republican platform on gay marriage make and manipulate individual choices—genes and republican platform on gay marriage are not destiny. Fast sex videos anal gay, these studies suggest that the divide between voters and abstainers and free gay fat hairy men porn left and right is a long-lasting and natural part of our heritage as humans, and therefore political choices are not always amenable to rational analysis or moral suasion.
We are not blank slates, and any effort to understand the moral basis for a political action like voting for a Republican must acknowledge that our evolutionary history has endowed us with genetic and social variation that constrains but does not extinguish our capacity republican platform on gay marriage self-control.
We do not have vicious debates about why autumn winds cause some leaves to turn red and others blue. So why get so worked up about a similar November occurrence, cleaving our states into red and blue?
Jonathan Haidt argues on the basis of some experimental evidence and anthropological observation that Republicans more than Democrats tap into universal moral passions to foster in-group solidarity over concerns for outgroups.
Daniel Everett responds that some of these supposed universal marriaeg, such as respect for authority and hierarchy, may not be universal because small-scale societies especially foraging societies tend to be egalitarian and non-hierarchical.
new comment 1
new comment 2
new comment 3